Reduction of pastures and reduction of the number of cows — how the agricultural sector of Tatarstan has changed in five years
In Tatarstan, from 2016 to 2021, the number of agricultural organisations and peasant farms, as well as the number of sole proprietors and personal subsidiary and other individual farms of citizens decreased, Realnoe Vremya found out by analysing the data of the results of relevant censuses. Along with this, the area of their lands has also decreased.
Agricultural organisations: reduction of the number of cows and the sown area for potatoes
Tatarstan has lost a fifth of agricultural organsations. If in 2016 there were 745 operating farms in the republic, then last year there were 592.
With the reduction in the number of agricultural organisations, the area of land belonging to them has also decreased — from 3,25 million to 2,686 million hectares. Of these, 94%, or 2,527 million hectares, were used last year, of which 2,376 million hectares were arable land.
In 2021, 231,8 thousand hectares were used for pastures — almost two times less than in 2016 (402,5 thousand hectares). The situation is similar with haymaking lands — their area has shrunk from 104,3 thousand hectares to 57,7 thousand hectares.
This is probably due to a reduction in the number of cattle by 16%. There have become 30,4 thousand fewer cows — last year 188,7 thousand were in agricultural organisations.
If the number of cattle has decreased, then there have been more pigs, sheep, goats and birds in agricultural organisations of Tatarstan since 2016. Last year, there were 458,2 thousand pigs (+20,7 thousand) and 18,2 thousand sheep and goats (+2,1 thousand). The number of birds has increased by 13%, to 13,9 million.
The total sown area of agricultural crops for harvest in Tatarstan organisations decreased from 2,45 to 2,1 million hectares. Most of the land in both 2016 and 2021 was allocated for grain and leguminous crops — 1,29 and 1,19 million hectares, respectively.
The second in terms of sown area is the land for the harvest of fodder crops. In 2021, it was estimated at 589,7 thousand hectares, which is one third less than in 2016. At the same time, the area of land for industrial crops has increased in Tatarstan — from 272,6 to 315,9 thousand hectares.
Agricultural organisations of Tatarstan have halved the sown area for potato harvest. In 2021, it amounted to 3 thousand hectares.
The sown area for vegetable and melon crops last year was 1 thousand hectares. Compared to 2016, it has decreased (1,3 thousand hectares).
Farms and sole proprietors: increasing the area of farmland, the rate on cows and poultry
The number of farms and individual entrepreneurs engaged in agricultural activities has decreased by 22% in Tatarstan. Last year, there were 2,585, and in 2016 — 3,326.
Unlike agricultural organisations, peasant farms and individual entrepreneurs have increased the total area of agricultural land. It has increased by almost a quarter — from 597,2 to 735,8 thousand hectares. In particular, the area under arable land in 2021 amounted to 692,2 thousand hectares — by a third more than in 2016.
As with agricultural organisations, farms and sole proprietors have reduced the area of land for haymaking and pastures. For example, the area intended for hay harvesting has been reduced almost fourfold — from 28,1 to 7,4 thousand hectares. Since 2016, the area of pastures has decreased by 13,8 thousand hectares and amounted to 32,8 thousand hectares.
At the same time, along with a decrease in the area of land for hayfields and pastures, the number of cattle has increased in farms and sole proprietors — by almost a third, from 82,4 to 108 thousand. Of these, 37,4 thousand are cows, the number of which has increased by 29% since 2016.
Peasant farms and sole proprietors, having decided to focus on cattle, reduced the number of other livestock. So, the number of pigs they have decreased from 12,4 thousand in 2016 to 10,1 thousand last year. In 2021, 38,7 thousand sheep and goats were counted — by 15% less. At the same time, the number of poultry in farms and sole proprietors has increased by almost 61% — from 1,25 to 2 million.
The sown area of agricultural crops for the harvest of farms and sole proprietors has increased by a little more than a third, to 634,5 thousand hectares. Of these, 421,7 thousand hectares are occupied by grain and leguminous crops.
Noticeably, peasant farms and sole proprietors have reduced the area for growing potatoes — from 2 to 0,8 thousand hectares. At the same time, the area for the harvest of vegetable and melon crops has become larger — from 0,7 to 1,2 thousand hectares.
Personal subsidiary farms: reduction in the number of animals and 60,4 thousand hectares for fodder crops
Personal subsidiary and other individual farms of citizens in Tatarstan last year amounted to 417,337 — by 27% less than in 2016. At the same time, it is noted that then the development was carried out in the farms of citizens in rural settlements, urban districts and settlements, and in 2021 — in the farms of citizens in rural settlements.
The total area of agricultural land in this category has not decreased as noticeably since 2016 as in organisations, farms and sole proprietors. It decreased by 5,1 thousand hectares, amounting to 123,3 thousand hectares last year.
As with agricultural organisations, farms and sole proprietors, the area for hay harvesting (from 3,9 to 2,3 thousand hectares) and livestock walking (from 0,4 to 0,2 thousand hectares) has decreased in personal subsidiary and other individual farms of Tatarstan residents. The territory that is used for perennial plantings has been halved — up to 2,1 thousand hectares.
The sown area of agricultural crops for the harvest has also decreased. In 2016, it was 109,5 thousand hectares, and in 2021 — 104,1 thousand hectares. A significant part of it — 60,4 thousand hectares — is occupied by fodder crops, and 29 thousand hectares are allocated for potatoes, which is by 37% less than in 2016.
If the number of other animals increased in agricultural organisations and farms with a reduction in the number of cows and other cattle, then the situation is different in personal subsidiary and other individual farms of Tatarstan. Since 2016, the number of cows, pigs, sheep, goats and poultry has decreased in them.
For example, the number of cattle decreased from 305,4 to 277,3 thousand heads, cows decreased by 100 thousand. The number of pigs has almost halved, to 37,5 thousand. Birds have decreased by 750,5 thousand — 3,069 million.